Academic Publications


Often called Questionable Research Practices (QRPs), research misconduct concerns sub-optimal research practices that result in faulty findings, whether through intentionally fraudulent techniques, or poorly planned and executed protocols.

Abbott, A., & Graf, P. (2003). Survey reveals mixed feelings over scientific misconduct. Nature, 424(6945), 117-117.

Anand, V., Tina Dacin, M., & Murphy, P. R. (2015). The continued need for diversity in fraud research: JBE JBE. Journal of Business Ethics, 131(4), 751-755.

Bawaskar, H. S. (2005). Research fraud. The Lancet, 366(9491), 1076.

Berger, V. W., & Ioannidis, J. P. (2004). The Decameron of poor research. BMJ, 329(7480), 1436-1440.

Bevan, J. C. (2002). Ethical behaviour of authors in biomedical journalism. Annals (Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada), 35(2), 81-85.

Bird, S. J. (2004). Publicizing scientific misconduct and its consequences. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10(3), 435-436.

Bonetta, L. (2006). The aftermath of scientific fraud. Cell, 124(5), 873-875.

Boutron I., & Ravaud P. (2018). Misrepresentation and distortion of research in biomedical literature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 115(11), 2613-2619.

Braxton, J. M., & Bayer, A. E. (1994). Perceptions of research misconduct and an analysis of their correlates. The Journal of Higher Education, 351-372.

Breen, K. J. (2003). Misconduct in medical research: whose responsibility?. Internal Medicine Journal, 33(4), 186-191.

Brumfiel, G. (2002). Misconduct finding at Bell Labs shakes physics community. Nature, 419(6906), 419-421.

Budiansky, S. (1983). Research fraud: false data confessed. Nature, 301(5896), 101.

Check, E. (2002). Scientific misconduct: Sitting in judgement. Nature, 419(6905), 332-333.

Chop, R. M., & Silva, M. C. (1991). Scientific fraud: Definitions, policies, and implications for nursing research. Journal of Professional Nursing, 7(3), 166-171.

Corbyn, Z. (2012). Misconduct is the main cause of life-sciences retractions.Nature, 490(7418), 21.

Dingell, J. D. (1993). Misconduct in medical research. New England Journal of Medicine, 328(22), 1610-1615.

Davis, M. S. (2003). The role of culture in research misconduct. Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance, 10(3), 189-201.

Daroff, R. B., & Griggs, R. C. (2004). Scientific misconduct and breach of publication ethics. Neurology, 62(3), 352-353.

Eisenman, R. (1996). PsychInfo: Research fraud and distortion. Journal of Information Ethics, 5(2), 5-9,95.

Else, H. (2019). What universities can learn from epic case of research fraud. Nature, 570(7761), 287-288.

Engler, R. L., Covell, J. W., Friedman, P. J., Kitcher, P. S., & Peters, R. M. (1987). Misrepresentation and responsibility in medical research. The New England Journal of Medicine, 317(22), 1383-1389.

Faktorovich, A. (2019). Excusing research fraud: The international failure to regulate academic misconduct. Pennsylvania Literary Journal, 11(2), 60-64,268-269.

Fang, F. C., Bennett, J. W., & Casadevall, A. (2013). Males are overrepresented among life science researchers committing scientific misconduct. MBio, 4(1), e00640-12.

Fang, F. C., & Casadevall, A. (2013). Why we cheat. Scientific American Mind24(2), 30-37.

Fang, F. C., Steen, R. G., & Casadevall, A. (2012). Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(42), 17028-17033.

Ferriman, A. (2000). Consultant suspended for research fraud. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 321(7274), 1429.

Fox, M. F., & Braxton, J. M. (1994). Misconduct and social control in science: issues, problems, solutions. The Journal of Higher Education, 373-383.

Fraser, S. G. (2013). Why is research fraud wrong? International Journal of General Medicine, 6, 629-630.

Friedman, P. J. (1992). Mistakes and fraud in medical research. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 20(1‐2), 17-25.

Friedman, P. J. (1992). On misunderstanding scientific misconduct. Science Communication, 14(2), 153-156.

Friedman, P. J. (1988). Fraud in radiologic research. American Journal of Roentgenology, 150(1), 27-30.

Friedman, L., & Richter, E. D. (2005). Conflicts of interest and scientific integrity. International Journal of Occupational Environ Health, 11, 205-6.

Geggie, D. (2001). A survey of newly appointed consultants’ attitudes towards research fraud. Journal of Medical Ethics, 27(5), 344.

George S. L. (2016). Research misconduct and data fraud in clinical trials: prevalence and causal factors. International Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21(1), 15-21.

Godecharles S., Nieuws S., Nemery B., & Dierickx K. (2017). Scientists still behaving badly? A survey within industry and universities. Science and Engineering Ethics, 24(6), 1697-1717.

Gottlieb, S. (2000). Breast cancer researcher accused of serious scientific misconduct. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 320(7232), 398.

Greitemeyer, T., & Sagioglou, C. (2015). Does Exonerating an Accused Researcher Restore the Researcher’s Credibility? PLOS, 10(5), 1-12.

Grinnell, F. (1997). Truth, fairness, and the definition of scientific misconduct. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 129(2), 189-192.

Gross, C. (2016). Scientific Misconduct. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 693-711.

Hackett, E. J. (1993). A new perspective on scientific misconduct. Academic Medicine, 68(9), S72-6.

Harrison, W. T., Simpson, J., & Weil, M. (2010). Editorial. Acta Crystallographica, E66, e1-e2.

Hilgartner, S. (1990). Research fraud, misconduct, and the IRB. IRB, 1-4.

Hofmann B., Helgesson G., Juth N., & Holm S. (2015). Scientific Dishonesty: A Survey of Doctoral Students at the Major Medical Faculties in Sweden and Norway. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 10(4), 380.

Jones, J. (1999). UK watchdog issues guidelines to combat medical research fraud. Student BMJ, 7.

Kennedy, D. (2003). Research fraud and public policy. Science, 300(5618), 393.

Kingori P., & Gerrets R. (2016) Morals, morale, and motivations in data fabrication: Medical research fieldworkers views and practices in two Sub-Saharan African contexts. Social Science & Medicine, 166, 150-159.

Knoll, E. (1992). What Is Scientific Misconduct?. Science Communication,14(2), 174-180.

Korn, D. (2002). Scientific misconduct: the state’s role has limits. Nature, 420(6917), 739-739.

LaFollette, M. C. (2000). The evolution of the “scientific misconduct” issue: an historical overview. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 224(4), 211-215.

LaFollette, M. C. (1994). The pathology of research fraud: the history and politics of the US experience. Journal of Internal Medicine, 235(2), 129-135.

Lefor, A. T. (2005). Scientific misconduct and unethical human experimentation: historic parallels and moral implications. Nutrition, 21(7), 878-882.

Liu, S. V. (2006). What drives scientists crazy and causes them to misconduct?-The origin and evolution of modern scientific misconduct. Sci. Ethics, 1, 53-58.

Lowry, F. (1995). Create culture of integrity to defeat research fraud, funding agencies say: CMAJ CMAJ. Canadian Medical Association.Journal, 152(9), 1507-8.

Marshall, E. (2000). How prevalent is fraud? That’s a million-dollar question. Science, 290(5497), 1662-1663.

Martinson, B. C., Anderson, M. S., & De Vries, R. (2005). Scientists behaving badly. Nature, 435(7043), 737-738.

Martyn, C. (2003). Fabrication, falsification and plagiarism. QJM, 96(4), 243-244.

McGuire, M. T. (1993). Research fraud – research fraud in the behavioral and biomedical sciences edited by david J. miller and michel hersen: The journal of the american medical association the journal of the american medical association. JAMA, 269(2), 289.

Neuroskeptic (2012). The Nine Circles of Scientific Hell. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 643-644.

Nigg, H. N., & Radulescu, G. (1994). Scientific misconduct in environmental science and toxicology. JAMA, 272(2), 168-170.

O’Reilly, J.,T. (1990). More gold and more fleece: Improving the legal sanctions against medical research fraud. Administrative Law Review, 42(3), 393.

Petersdorf, R. G. (1986). Fraud, Irresponsible Authorship, and Their Causes: The Pathogenesis of Fraud in Medical Science. Annals of Internal Medicine,104(2), 252-254.

Pickett J. T., & Roche S. P. (2018). Questionable, Objectionable, or Criminal? Public Opinion on Data Fraud and Selective Reporting in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics, 24(1), 151-171.

Pownall, M. (1999). Falsifying data is main problem in US research fraud review. The Western Journal of Medicine, 170(6), 377.

Price, A. R. (1994). Definitions and boundaries of research misconduct: Perspectives from a federal government viewpoint. The Journal of Higher Education, 286-297.

Racker, E. (1989). A view of misconduct in science. Nature, 339(6220), 91.

Rennie, D., Evans, I., Farthing, M. J., Chantler, C., Chantler, S., & Riis, P. (1998). Dealing with research misconduct in the United Kingdom. BMJ, 316(6).

Rennie, D., & Gunsalus, C. K. (1993). Scientific misconduct: new definition, procedures, and office—perhaps a new leaf. JAMA, 269(7), 915-917.

Rhodes, R., & Strain, J. J. (2004). Whistleblowing in academic medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30(1), 35-39.

Rohwer A., Wager E., Young T., & Garner P. (2018). Plagiarism in research: a survey of African medical journals. BMJ Open, 8(11).

Rotonda, T. (1990). Underreporting research is scientific misconduct. Jama263, 1405-1408

Rowe, S., Alexander, N., Clydesdale, F., Applebaum, R., Atkinson, S., Black, R., … & Wedral, E. (2009). Funding food science and nutrition research: financial conflicts and scientific integrity. Nutrition Reviews, 67(5), 264-272.

Ryan, K. J. (1998). Research fraud and public trust. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 13(1), 50-56.

Sachs, G. A., & Siegler, M. (1993). Teaching scientific integrity and the responsible conduct of research. Academic Medicine, 68(12), 871-5.

Shapiro, M. F., & Charrow, R. P. (1985). Scientific misconduct in investigational drug trials. The New England Journal of Medicine, 312(11), 731-736.

Souder, L. (2010). A rhetorical analysis of apologies for scientific misconduct: do they really mean it?. Science and Engineering Ethics, 16(1), 175-184.

Steen, R. G. (2011). Retractions in the scientific literature: Do authors deliberately commit research fraud? Journal of Medical Ethics, 37(2), 113.

Steneck, N. H. (1994). Research universities and scientific misconduct: History, policies, and the future. The Journal of Higher Education, 310-330.

Stephenson, J. (2006). Research fraud: The journal of the american medical association the journal of the american medical association. JAMA, 295(7), 748.

Stern, A. M., Casadevall, A., Steen, R. G., & Fang, F. C. (2014). Financial costs and personal consequences of research misconduct resulting in retracted publications. Elife, 3, e02956.

Stevens, N. D. (1996). Perspectives on research Misconduct/Four essays on scientific integrity and the University/Ethics in neurobiological research with human Subjects/Fraud in Research/Whistleblowing and scientific misconduct. Journal of Information Ethics, 5(1), 82-91,96.

Swazey, J. P., Anderson, M. S., Lewis, K. S., & Louis, K. S. (1993). Ethical problems in academic research. American Scientist, 542-553.

UK consultant censured for failure to act on junior’s research fraud. (2001). The Lancet, 357(9258), 780.

White, C. (2005). Suspected research fraud: difficulties of getting at the truth. BMJ, 331(7511), 281-288.

Williamson, B. (2002). Bad behaviour does not equal research fraud. Journal of Medical Ethics, 28(3), 207.

Wright, N. D. (1994). Reviews — stealing into print: Fraud, plagiarism, and misconduct in scientific publishing by marcel C. LaFollette / research fraud in the behavioral and biomedical sciences edited by david J. miller and michel hersen. The Library Quarterly, 64(2), 221.

Yankauer, A. (1990). Editor’s report: scientific misconduct and the responsibility of journal editors. American Journal of Public Health, 80(4), 399-400.

Youngner, J. S. (1998). The scientific misconduct process: A scientist’s view from the inside. JAMA, 279(1), 62-64.